Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid–liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.
- Instead of boondoggle irs, 80 billion for desalination plants to increase water supplies would have made sense .. 18. August 2022 PDSKNOWSITALL
- Water - Getting the water from one location to another. Sponges. Lake fresh water or sea beach ocean water. Home desalination membranes - Water treatment access points - temporarily swimming pools. https://t.co/LlpuZuEsfr 18. August 2022 JuSaNOthRGurL
- Thames Water hose pipe ban from the 24th of August but if they fixed all the leaks and opened the desalination plant at Beckton we wouldn't need the ban. There's been a leak at Orpington station for over a week now. https://t.co/lKr8eq2y6B 18. August 2022 GentlemanGeorge
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